Different Types of Soil In India

India is a diverse country. The diversity of the Indian tribes lies in the traditions, customs, food, languages, etc. Also, the diversity of India lies in its soil. Various parts of the country are covered with mud beds. In addition, these soil beds have different textures and textures. Soil can be described as a mixture of living things or humus and fine particles of rock. In this article your going to learn the Different Types of Soil In India so keep reading this article till the end.

It supports agriculture and crop growth. There are different types of soil in India. In ancient times, it was widely classified as the fertile and barren variety. With the advent of modern times, studies have progressed far, leading to several subdivisions of soil. This classification is based on composition, moisture content, and soil color. The diversity of soil types in India comes as a result of various environmental forces and factors.

There are ten major types of soil in India. These are scattered throughout the Indian subcontinent. Therefore, various parts of India are popular for the production of various crops.

The different types of soils contain different nutrients. While the soils lack in some elements, then on the other hand, they are enriched with the others. This difference in the composition of the soil is another deciding factor for the cultivation of different types of crops.

different types of soil in india

In addition, the weather conditions as well as the vegetation also determines the quality of the soil. Because of the more organic matter, the soil becomes more fertile. Also, due to heavy rainfall, the vegetation is quite good.

1. Alluvial Soil

Alluvial soil covers most of India among other soil types in India. It spreads over an area of ​​143 square miles. The Ganga, Sutlej, and Brahmaputra plains are the main archipelago with fertile soil.

Also, it is found in river valleys such as Tapi, Narmada and the plains lying along the East and West lines. In the Himalayas, brown debris forms a perfect soil. In addition, in waterlogged areas, the soil is not well drained or derived from the immature profiles of these regions. Alluvial soils are very low in potassium content.

In addition, the color of the compact soil is very different from gray to ash. Most importantly, soft soils benefit most crops such as rice, wheat, sugarcane, etc. Alluvial soil can be further divided into two types.

  • Bhangar Soil

This soil is loamy or clayey in texture and lies above the flood regions. The texture is due to the calcium carbonate nodules. Also, the bhangar soil is well-drained.

  • Khadar Soil

The fresh silt constitutes this type of soil in India. This soil occupies the floody regions of the plains. Also, it is rich in concentration.

2. Red Soil 

Red soil ranks second in size in the Indian subcontinent. It includes parts of Tamil Nadu, Bundelkhand, Raj Mahal and Kathiawad. The soil gets its name from the circular oxides present in it.

These oxides transfer redness to the soil. Therefore, it is called red soil. Also, this type of soil in India is deficient in humus, nitrogen, magnesium and phosphate. Lastly, it is very good for crops such as wheat, gardens, sorghum, potatoes and legumes.

3. Black Soil

Globally known as the “Tropical Chernozems“, black soil occupies the third largest place in India. Cretaceous lava rocks form black soil or cotton soil. Also, black soil is widespread in parts of many provinces such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and southern provinces such as Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

In addition, this type of soil in India contains iron, calcium, potash, aluminum, iron and lime. Water storage capacity when dark soil is good. Therefore, it is best to grow cotton, castor, citrus fruits, tobacco and linseed.

4. Arid Soil 

Also known as desert soil, it covers dry or arid regions. Various wind activities put dry soil in the desert. It has a high salt content. Also, it has no moisture and humus. In addition, it has a high concentration of contaminated calcium carbonate. Therefore, it prevents the ingress of water. Dry soil has a normal concentration of phosphate. But there is a sufficient amount of nitrogen in it. Dry earth color varies with red and brown.

5. Laterite Soil 

First, laterite soil derives its name from the Latin word “later” meaning brick. Second, it’s soft when wet and hardened when dried. Third, it includes regions with high temperatures and high rainfall. High leaching causes the formation of recent soils. Therefore, lime and silica leach away from the soil.

The humus content of laterite soils is very low as plants and trees absorb it. Also, because of high temperatures, bacteria remove organic matter from the soil. In addition, laterite soils are rich in iron and aluminum. But it contains deficiencies of nitrogen, potash, lime and humus. In addition, laterite soils are red in color due to the presence of iron oxides. Lastly, it is good to grow rice, sugarcane, cashew nuts and ragi.

6. Saline Soil

Saline soil does not support any vegetation. It is due to the presence of sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Therefore, it is infertile. They occur in arid, semi-arid, waterlogged, and wet areas such as Gujarat, east of the sea deltas, and Sunderbans. As seawater tends to seep into water bodies, therefore, salt retains a thin layer on the surface of the soil.

This results in the emergence of salty soils. It has no nitrogen and calcium. Sometimes, due to irrigation in arid areas, it results in the formation of salty soils. Therefore, gypsum can be added to the soil to solve salt problems.

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7. Peaty Soil

Peaty soils cover areas with high rainfall and humidity. Also, good vegetation promotes the emergence of boring soils. Due to the abundance of dead organisms, the soil is rich in humus and organic matter. Usually, it is dark in color. Parts of Indian states such as Bihar, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Orissa, and Tamil Nadu have this Indian territory.

8. Forest Soil

Forest soil occupies the forest areas as they receive heavy rainfall. The texture of this soil is coarse in the upper slopes and loam or silty in the valley regions. The soil in the deciduous forests is fertile and good for agriculture as the leaves decompose during the fall.


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